Invertible Zero-Shot Recognition Flows
Deep generative models have been successfully applied to Zero-Shot Learning (ZSL) recently. However, the underlying drawbacks of GANs and VAEs (e.g., the hardness of training with ZSL-oriented regularizers and the limited generation quality) hinder the existing generative ZSL models from fully bypassing the seen-unseen bias. To tackle the above limitations, for the first time, this work incorporates a new family of generative models (i.e., flow-based models) into ZSL. The proposed Invertible Zero-shot Flow (IZF) learns factorized data embeddings (i.e., the semantic factors and the non-semantic ones) with the forward pass of an invertible flow network, while the reverse pass generates data samples. This procedure theoretically extends conventional generative flows to a conditional scheme. To explicitly solve the bias problem, our model enlarges the seen-unseen distributional discrepancy based on negative sample-based distance measurement. Notably, IZF works flexibly with either a naive Bayesian classifier or a held-out trainable one for zero-shot recognition. Experiments on widely-adopted ZSL benchmarks demonstrate the significant performance gain of IZF over existing methods, in terms of both classic and generalized settings."