Consensus-Aware Visual-Semantic Embedding for Image-Text Matching
Image-text matching plays a central role in bridging vision and language. Most existing approaches only rely on the image-text instance pair to learn their representations, thereby exploiting their matching relationships and making the corresponding alignments. Such approaches only exploit the superficial associations contained in the instance pairwise data, with no consideration of any external commonsense knowledge, which may hinder their capabilities to reason the higher-level relationships between image and text. In this paper, we propose a Consensus-aware Visual-Semantic Embedding (CVSE) model to incorporate the consensus information, namely the commonsense knowledge shared between both modalities, into image-text matching. Specifically, the consensus information is exploited by computing the statistical co-occurrence correlations between the semantic concepts from the image captioning corpus and deploying the constructed concept correlation graph to yield the consensus-aware concept (CAC) representations. Afterwards, CVSE learns the associations and alignments between image and text based on the exploited consensus as well as the instance-level representations for both modalities. Extensive experiments conducted on two public datasets verify that the exploited consensus makes significant contributions to constructing more meaningful visual-semantic embeddings, with the superior performances over the state-of-the-art approaches on the bidirectional image and text retrieval task. Our code of this paper is available at: https://github.com/BruceW91/CVSE."