The Phong Surface: Efficient 3D Model Fitting using Lifted Optimization
Jingjing Shen, Thomas J. Cashman, Qi Ye, Tim Hutton, Toby Sharp, Federica Bogo, Andrew Fitzgibbon, Jamie Shotton
Realtime perceptual and interaction capabilities in mixed reality require a range of 3D tracking problems to be solved at low latency on resource-constrained hardware such as head-mounted devices. Indeed, for devices such as HoloLens 2 where the CPU and GPU are left available for applications, multiple tracking subsystems are required to run on a continuous, real-time basis while sharing a single Digital Signal Processor. To solve model-fitting problems for HoloLens 2 hand tracking, where the computational budget is approximately 100 times smaller than an iPhone 7, we introduce a new surface model: the `Phong surface'. Using ideas from computer graphics, the Phong surface describes the same 3D shape as a triangulated mesh model, but with continuous surface normals which enable the use of lifting-based optimization, providing significant efficiency gains over ICP-based methods. We show that Phong surfaces retain the convergence benefits of smoother surface models, while triangle meshes do not."