Attention Guided Anomaly Localization in Images
Anomaly localization is an important problem in computer vision which involves localizing anomalous regions within images with applications in industrial inspection, surveillance, and medical imaging. This task is challenging due to the small sample size and pixel coverage of the anomaly in real-world scenarios. Most prior works need to use anomalous training images to compute a class-specific threshold to localize anomalies. Without the need of anomalous training images, we propose Convolutional Adversarial Variational autoencoder with Guided Attention (CAVGA), which localizes the anomaly with a convolutional latent variable to preserve the spatial information. In the unsupervised setting, we propose an attention expansion loss where we encourage CAVGA to focus on all normal regions in the image. Furthermore, in the weakly-supervised setting we propose a complementary guided attention loss, where we encourage the attention map to focus on all normal regions while minimizing the attention map corresponding to anomalous regions in the image. CAVGA outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) anomaly localization methods on MVTec Anomaly Detection (MVTAD), modified ShanghaiTech Campus (mSTC) and Large-scale Attention based Glaucoma (LAG) datasets in the unsupervised setting and when using only 2% anomalous images in the weakly-supervised setting. CAVGA also outperforms SOTA anomaly detection methods on the MNIST, CIFAR-10,Fashion-MNIST, MVTAD, mSTC and LAG datasets."