Square Attack: a query-efficient black-box adversarial attack via random search
We propose the Square Attack, a score-based black-box $l_2$- and $l_\infty$- adversarial attack that does not rely on local gradient information and thus is not affected by gradient masking. Square Attack is based on a randomized search scheme which selects localized square-shaped updates at random positions so that at each iteration the perturbation is situated approximately at the boundary of the feasible set. Our method is significantly more query efficient and achieves a higher success rate compared to the state-of-the-art methods, especially in the untargeted setting. In particular, on ImageNet we improve the average query efficiency in the untargeted setting for various deep networks by a factor of at least $1.8$ and up to $3$ compared to the recent state-of-the-art $l_\infty$-attack of Al-Dujaili & O’Reilly . Moreover, although our attack is black-box, it can also outperform gradient-based white-box attacks on the standard benchmarks achieving a new state-of-the-art in terms of the success rate."