Embedding Propagation: Smoother Manifold for Few-Shot Classification

Pau Rodríguez, Issam Laradji, Alexandre Drouin, Alexandre Lacoste ;


Few-shot classification is challenging because the data distribution of the training set can be widely different to the test set as their classes are disjoint. This distribution shift often results in poor generalization. Manifold smoothing has been shown to address the distribution shift problem by extending the decision boundaries and reducing the noise of the class representations. Moreover, manifold smoothness is a key factor for semi-supervised learning and transductive learning algorithms. In this work, we propose to use embedding propagation as an unsupervised non-parametric regularizer for manifold smoothing in few-shot classification. Embedding propagation leverages interpolations between the extracted features of a neural network based on a similarity graph. We empirically show that embedding propagation yields a smoother embedding manifold. We also show that applying embedding propagation to a transductive classifier achieves new state-of-the-art results in extit{mini}Imagenet, extit{tiered}Imagenet, Imagenet-FS, and CUB. Furthermore, we show that embedding propagation consistently improves the accuracy of the models in multiple semi-supervised learning scenarios by up to 16\% points. The proposed embedding propagation operation can be easily integrated as a non-parametric layer into a neural network. We provide the training code and usage examples at https://github.com/ElementAI/embedding-propagation."

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