Towards Calibrated Hyper-Sphere Representation via Distribution Overlap Coefficient for Long-Tailed Learning
Hualiang Wang, Siming Fu, Xiaoxuan He, Hangxiang Fang, Zuozhu Liu, Haoji Hu
"Long-tailed learning aims to tackle the crucial challenge that head classes dominate the training procedure under severe class imbalance in real-world scenarios. However, little attention has been given to how to quantify the dominance severity of head classes in the representation space. Motivated by this, we generalize the cosine-based classifiers to a von Mises-Fisher (vMF) mixture model, denoted as vMF classifier, which enables to quantitatively measure representation quality upon the hyper-sphere space via calculating distribution overlap coefficient. To our knowledge, this is the first work to measure the representation quality of classifiers and features from the perspective of the distribution overlap coefficient. On top of it, we formulate the inter-class discrepancy and class feature consistency loss terms to alleviate the interference among the classifier weights and align features with classifier weights. Furthermore, a novel post-training calibration algorithm is devised to zero-costly boost the performance via inter-class overlap coefficients. Our models outperform previous work with a large margin and achieve state-of-the-art performance on long-tailed image classification, semantic segmentation, and instance segmentation tasks (e.g., we achieve 55.0% overall accuracy with ResNetXt-50 in ImageNet-LT). Our code is available at https://github.com/VipaiLab/vMF_OP."