PseCo: Pseudo Labeling and Consistency Training for Semi-Supervised Object Detection
"In this paper, we delve into two key techniques in Semi-Supervised Object Detection (SSOD), namely pseudo labeling and consistency training. We observe that these two techniques currently neglect some important properties of object detection, hindering efficient learning on unlabeled data. Specifically, for pseudo labeling, existing works only focus on the classification score yet fail to guarantee the localization precision of pseudo boxes; For consistency training, the widely adopted random-resize training only considers the label-level consistency but misses the feature-level one, which also plays an important role in ensuring the scale invariance. To address the problems incurred by noisy pseudo boxes, we design Noisy Pseudo box Learning (NPL) that includes Prediction-guided Label Assignment (PLA) and Positive-proposal Consistency Voting (PCV). PLA relies on model predictions to assign labels and makes it robust to even coarse pseudo boxes; while PCV leverages the regression consistency of positive proposals to reflect the localization quality of pseudo boxes. Furthermore, in consistency training, we propose Multi-view Scale-invariant Learning (MSL) that includes mechanisms of both label- and feature-level consistency, where feature consistency is achieved by aligning shifted feature pyramids between two images with identical content but varied scales. On COCO benchmark, our method, termed PSEudo labeling and COnsistency training (PseCo), outperforms the SOTA (Soft Teacher) by 2.0, 1.8, 2.0 points under 1%, 5%, and 10% labelling ratios, respectively. It also significantly improves the learning efficiency for SSOD, e.g., PseCo halves the training time of the SOTA approach but achieves even better performance. Code is available at https://github.com/ligang-cs/PseCo."