DynaST: Dynamic Sparse Transformer for Exemplar-Guided Image Generation

Songhua Liu, Jingwen Ye, Sucheng Ren, Xinchao Wang ;


"One key challenge of exemplar-guided image generation lies in establishing fine-grained correspondences between input and guided images. Prior approaches, despite the promising results, have relied on either estimating dense attention to compute per-point matching, which is limited to only coarse scales due to the quadratic memory cost, or fixing the number of correspondences to achieve linear complexity, which lacks flexibility. In this paper, we propose a dynamic sparse attention based Transformer model, termed Dynamic Sparse Transformer (DynaST), to achieve fine-level matching with favorable efficiency. The heart of our approach is a novel dynamic-attention unit, dedicated to covering the variation on the optimal number of tokens one position should focus on. Specifically, DynaST leverages the multi-layer nature of Transformer structure, and performs the dynamic attention scheme in a cascaded manner to refine matching results and synthesize visually-pleasing outputs. In addition, we introduce a unified training objective for DynaST, making it a versatile reference-based image translation framework for both supervised and unsupervised scenarios. Extensive experiments on three applications, pose-guided person image generation, edge-based face synthesis, and undistorted image style transfer, demonstrate that DynaST achieves superior performance in local details, outperforming the state of the art while reducing the computational cost significantly. Our code is available \href{https://github.com/Huage001/DynaST}{here}."

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