PseudoAugment: Learning to Use Unlabeled Data for Data Augmentation in Point Clouds
Zhaoqi Leng, Shuyang Cheng, Benjamin Caine, Weiyue Wang, Xiao Zhang, Jonathon Shlens, Mingxing Tan, Dragomir Anguelov
"Data augmentation is an important technique to improve data efficiency and to save labeling cost for 3D detection in point clouds. Yet, existing augmentation policies have so far been designed to only utilize labeled data, which limits the data diversity. In this paper, we recognize that pseudo labeling and data augmentation are complementary, thus propose to leverage unlabeled data for data augmentation to enrich the training data. In particular, we design three novel pseudo-label based data augmentation policies (PseudoAugments) to fuse both labeled and pseudo-labeled scenes, including frames (PseudoFrame), objects (PseudoBBox), and background (PseudoBackground). PseudoAugments outperforms pseudo labeling by mitigating pseudo labeling errors and generating diverse fused training scenes. We demonstrate PseudoAugments generalize across point-based and voxel-based architectures, different model capacity and both KITTI and Waymo Open Dataset. To alleviate the cost of hyperparameter tuning and iterative pseudo labeling, we develop a population-based data augmentation framework for 3D detection, named AutoPseudoAugment. Unlike previous works that perform pseudo-labeling offline, our framework performs PseudoAugments and hyperparameter tuning in one shot to reduce computational cost. Experimental results on the large-scale Waymo Open Dataset show our method outperforms state-of-the-art auto data augmentation method (PPBA) and self-training method (pseudo labeling). In particular, AutoPseudoAugment is about 3X and 2X data efficient on vehicle and pedestrian tasks compared to prior arts. Notably, AutoPseudoAugment nearly matches the full dataset training results, with just 10% of the labeled run segments on the vehicle detection task."