Source-Free Domain Adaptation with Contrastive Domain Alignment and Self-Supervised Exploration for Face Anti-Spoofing
"Despite promising success in intra-dataset tests, existing face anti-spoofing (FAS) methods suffer from poor generalization ability under domain shift. This problem can be solved by aligning source and target data. However, due to privacy and security concerns of human faces, source data are usually inaccessible during adaptation for practical deployment, where only a pre-trained source model and unlabeled target data are available. In this paper, we propose a novel Source-free Domain Adaptation framework for Face Anti-Spoofing, namely SDA-FAS, that addresses the problems of source knowledge adaptation and target data exploration under the source-free setting. For source knowledge adaptation, we present novel strategies to realize self-training and domain alignment. We develop a contrastive domain alignment module to align conditional distribution across different domains by aggregating the features of fake and real faces separately. We demonstrate in theory that the pre-trained source model is equivalent to the source data as source prototypes for supervised contrastive learning in domain alignment. The source-oriented regularization is also introduced into self-training to alleviate the self-biasing problem. For target data exploration, self-supervised learning is employed with specified patch shuffle data augmentation to explore intrinsic spoofing features for unseen attack types. To our best knowledge, SDA-FAS is the first attempt that jointly optimizes the source-adapted knowledge and target self-supervised exploration for FAS. Extensive experiments on thirteen cross-dataset testing scenarios show that the proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by a large margin."